The Republic of Estonia and the Arab Republic of Egypt recognised each other through respective membership in the League of Nations (Estonia acceded in 1922, Egypt in 1937).
In 1927, the Estonian Consul General in Athens (and later in Istanbul) was assigned to represent Estonia’s consular interests in Egypt. In 1933, Foreign Minister August Rei appointed the Dane Anton Nyegaard Estonian Honorary Consul in Cairo (covering all of Egypt).
The Consulate in Cairo contributed to the development of Estonian-Egyptian trade relations and personal contacts. Trade between Estonia and Egypt grew by 300 to 400% in a couple of years. The Honorary Consul rendered assistance also to Estonian seamen and tourists visiting Egypt.
Egypt re-recognised the Republic of Estonia on 6 September 1991. Diplomatic relations were established on 2 January 1992.
In May 2007, the first Estonian Ambassador to Egypt, residing in Tallinn, Mrs. Tiia Miller presented her credentials to President Muhammad Hosni Mubarak.
In November 2007, Estonian Special Mission to Egypt started with the task to prepare the opening of the Embassy.
On 1 March 2010 Foreign Minister Urmas Paet opened the Estonian Embassy in Cairo, which is the first Estonian Embassy in an Arab country and on the continent of Africa.
In June 2010, Mr. Paul Teesalu was nominated as the first Estonian resident Ambassador to EGYPT and presented his credentials to President Muhammad Hosni Mubarak on 6 December 2010.
On 14 September 2014 Ambassador Mr. Sander Soone presented his credentials to President Abdul Fattah El-Sisi. Ambassador Soone is also accredeted as the Estonian Ambassador to Ethiopia and as an observer representative of Estonia to the League of Arab States in Cairo and the African Union in Addis Ababa.
Egyptian Ambassador to Estonia Mr. Mahmoud Gamil Ahmed El Dieb presented his credentials to the President Toomas Hendrik Ilves in January 2014. The Ambassador resides in Helsinki.
At the beginning of the 1920s, dozens of Estonians lived in Egypt, having found themselves in Egypt following the defeat of the armies of Denikin and Wrangel in South Russia. The majority of the Estonians soon left Egypt, while some stayed in Egypt. Several female Estonian missionaries, who were part of the Egyptian General Mission established in 1898, found work and began a new life in Egypt.
At the beginning of 1925, Jaan Lattik, a clergyman and educator, and Ernst Ederberg, an architect visited Egypt. At the same period, Lattik published his travel memoirs “To the South”, at first in the newspaper “Päevaleht” and thereafter as a separate book.